A royal source confirmed that the royal couple were given the jab by a doctor from the royal household at Windsor Castle, where they are both isolating.
The Queen, 94, and the Duke of Edinburgh, 99, both meet the government age guidelines for those who should be given the vaccine.
But the source said that it had been made public to prevent inaccuracies and further speculation and that her majesty decided that she would let it be known she has had the vaccination.
It has not been disclosed which of the vaccines the royal couple have received.
According to the government, some 1.3 million people in the UK have now received their first dose of the Covid vaccine, that includes nearly a quarter of the most elderly and vulnerable patients.
The Queen and Philip have been spending the lockdown in England sheltering at their Windsor castle home after deciding to have a quiet christmas at their Berkshire residence and forgo the traditional royal family gathering at Sandringham.
Last month, the Queen appeared alongside several other senior members of the royal family for the first time since the coronavirus pandemic began.
In 2020 she went seven months between March and October without carrying out public engagements outside of a royal residence.
On Friday,6 January, a third coronavirus vaccine was approved for use in the UK as the country recorded the highest number of Covid-19 deaths.
Prime minister Boris Johnson has said the aim is to vaccinate 15 million people in the UK by mid-February, including care home residents and staff, frontline NHS staff, everyone over 70 and those who have been categorised as clinically extremely vulnerable.